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Python Interview Questions
Python is a programming language with objects, modules, threads, exceptions and automatic memory management. The benefits of pythons are that it is simple and easy, portable, extensible, build-in data structure and it is an open source.
Pickle module accepts any Python object and converts it into a string representation and dumps it into a file by using dump function, this process is called pickling. While the process of retrieving original Python objects from the stored string representation is called unpickling.
- Python memory is managed by Python private heap space. All Python objects and data structures are located in a private heap. The programmer does not have an access to this private heap and interpreter takes care of this Python private heap.
- The allocation of Python heap space for Python objects is done by Python memory manager. The core API gives access to some tools for the programmer to code.
- Python also have an inbuilt garbage collector, which recycle all the unused memory and frees the memory and makes it available to the heap space.
A Python decorator is a specific change that we make in Python syntax to alter functions easily.
Everything in Python is an object and all variables hold references to the objects. The references values are according to the functions; as a result, you cannot change the value of the references. However, you can change the objects if it is mutable.
PEP 8 is a coding convention, a set of recommendation, about how to write your Python code more readable.
Python language is an interpreted language. Python program runs directly from the source code. It converts the source code that is written by the programmer into an intermediate language, which is again translated into machine language that has to be executed.
PyChecker is a static analysis tool that detects the bugs in Python source code and warns about the style and complexity of the bug. Pylint is another tool that verifies whether the module meets the coding standard.
The difference between list and tuple is that list is mutable while tuple is not. Tuple can be hashed for e.g as a key for dictionaries.
They are syntax constructions to ease the creation of a Dictionary or List based on existing iterable.
In Python, every name introduced has a place where it lives and can be hooked for. This is known as a namespace. It is like a box where a variable name is mapped to the object placed. Whenever the variable is searched out, this box will be searched, to get the corresponding object.
A lambda form in python does not have statements as it is used to make new function object and then return them at runtime.
In Python, iterators are used to iterate a group of elements, containers like list.
A mechanism to select a range of items from sequence types like list, tuple, strings etc. is known as slicing.
To generate random numbers in Python, you need to import command as
This returns a random floating point number in the range [0,1]
There are mutable and Immutable types of Pythons built in types Mutable built-in types
Immutable built-in types
It is a single expression anonymous function often used as inline function.
Pass means, no-operation Python statement, or in other words, it is a place holder in a compound statement, where there should be a blank left and nothing has to be written there.
A unit testing framework in Python is known as unittest. It supports sharing of setups, automation testing, shutdown code for tests, aggregation of tests into collections etc.
The way of implementing iterators are known as generators. It is a normal function except that it yields expression in the function.
To copy an object in Python, you can try copy.copy () or copy.deepcopy() for the general case. You cannot copy all objects but most of them.
In order to convert a number into a string, use the inbuilt function str(). If you want a octal or hexadecimal representation, use the inbuilt function oct() or hex().
In Python, module is the way to structure program. Each Python program file is a module, which imports other modules like objects and attributes.
The folder of Python program is a package of modules. A package can have modules or subfolders.
To share global variables across modules within a single program, create a special module. Import the config module in all modules of your application. The module will be available as a global variable across modules.
By using a command os.remove (filename) or os.unlink(filename)
A Python documentation string is known as docstring, it is a way of documenting Python functions, modules and classes.
Python sequences can be index in positive and negative numbers. For positive index, 0 is the first index, 1 is the second index and so forth. For negative index, (-1) is the last index and (-2) is the second last index and so forth.
Xrange returns the xrange object while range returns the list, and uses the same memory and no matter what the range size is.
Local variables: If a variable is assigned a new value anywhere within the function’s body, it’s assumed to be local.
Global variables: Those variables that are only referenced inside a function are implicitly global.
To make a Python Script executable on Unix, you need to do two things,
- Script file’s mode must be executable and
- the first line must begin with # ( #!/usr/local/bin/python)